TCC Sponsored Videos
Videos made available here are from two vital resources:
The Transferware Worldwide Lecture Series - free monthly Zoom lectures open to all. Invitations are distributed to the organizations who have expressed interest in participating. These lectures are recorded and made available to current TCC members after the Zoom session. Member login required. A second source are the recorded presentations at TCC Annual Meetings, also available to members with login.
Annual Meeting Lectures
This is the October 30, 2022 Virtual Annual Business Meeting. The link is for members only.
Title: Early Transfer Printed Wares at Historic Deerfield, 1750-1800
Lecturer: Amanda Lange
Description: This presentation is from the 2022 New England Regional TCC Meeting held at Historic Deerfield, MA, on October 22. It focuses on early examples of transfer-printed ceramics in the collections of Historic Deerfield.
Our speaker: Amanda E. Lange is Director of the Curatorial Department and Curator of Historic Interiors at Historic Deerfield.
Title: Anti-Slavery Ceramics at Historic Deerfield
Lecturer: Dan Sousa
Description: This presentation is from the 2022 New England Regional TCC Meeting held at Historic Deerfield, MA, on October 22. It focuses on the use of transfer-printed ceramics as part of the Abolitionist movement in Great Britain and the United States during the 19thcentury.
Our speaker: Dan Sousa is Assistant Curator at Historic Deerfield and is a member of the TCC Board of Directors.
Lecturer: Scott Hanson
Transferware in Two Historic Maine Houses was presented at the 2021 TCC Annual Meeting. Take a look at transferware collections in two historic Maine Houses, the Dow Farm in Standish and the Whitten House in Topsham. The Donald Essman/Dow Farm Collection resides in a 1760’s farmhouse with 19th century additions which has received a museum-quality restoration over the past 45+ years. Don Essman and his husband Mike Bendzela have partnered with Dow family descendants to restore the farm and along the way a collection of British transferware pieces in a variety of patterns has been assembled for display and use in the house. Some of the patterns are documented to have been in the house historically and others chosen because they are appropriate to the restored period rooms. This is a wonderful opportunity to see British transferware displayed in restored rooms as it was seen and used in the United States in the mid-19th century.
Whitten House was home to the family of a woolen mill owner for two generations, from 1830 to 1941. It then spent 60 years as the local public library before being purchased by TCC president Scott Hanson in 2003. While restoring the house, Scott unearthed numerous transferware shards under and around the house. He will show us what was found and then tell us of his efforts to identify the patterns and collect pieces in those patterns, returning the Whitten’s China to their house – while adding a few new themes of his own.
A Visit to Dennis & Dad Antiques was presented by TCC president Scott Hanson at the TCC 2021 Annual Meeting.
The TCC Annual Meeting has always included a transferware sale, with a number of dealer members offering a wide range of items for attendees to purchase. It was not practical to hold a sale with the online virtual Annual Meeting, but we did have a video taped conversation with Dennis about his 50+ years as an antique dealer specializing in transferware. We got a look at the astounding variety of transferware pieces in their stock and also saw the Berard’s personal collection of 500 transferware children’s cups.
A Visit to the Gestler Collection was presented by TCC president Scott Hanson at the TCC 2021 Annual Meeting. He visited Pittsburg, PA to see and hear about the wonderful and extensive Eleanor and David Gestler Collection. Dave and his late wife Eleanor built the collection over decades with annual trips to the UK to seek out additional pieces. The collection is notable for its breadth of themes, colors, shapes, and patterns. There is something for everyone to love in this collection! He talks with Dave and daughters Kim and Carol about Eleanor and the collection. We also get a glimpse of Dave’s extensive Early American Pressed Glass collection. A live Q&A session with the Gestlers follows the video presentation.
Lecturer: Dr. Richard Halliday
Engravers, artists, artisan, designers, authors, interpreters, life, the universe and everything... - presented at the TCC 2019 Annual Meeting in Birmingham, AL
This lecture was made possible by the generous support of the Paul and Gladys Richards Research Grant Program for Studies in British Transferware.
Lecturer: Gaye Blake-Roberts
Overglazed Printed Creamware; Sadler & Green of Liverpool & Their Association with Josiah Wedgwood was presented at the TCC 2019 Annual Meeting in Birmingham, AL. Gaye, now retired, was Curator at the Wedgwood Museum in Barlaston, England, is currently an honorary senior research fellow with the V&A Research Institute, and was recently awarded the M.B.E. This lecture was made possible by the generous support of the Paul and Gladys Richards Research Grant Program for Studies in British Transferware.
Lecturer: Scott Hanson
A Transferware Journey in India was presented by TCC president Scott Hanson and TCC vice-president Michael Sack during the TCC 2020 Annual Meeting. The presentation shows historic source prints and transferware pieces depicting sites and monuments in India and current photos of the same sites and monuments. Scott, Michael and 11 other transferware collectors toured the sites in India early in 2020 and share insights and stories about the journey while discussing the transferware and source prints.
Britain’s Development of the Transfer Printing Process in the 18th Century and How it Changed the Industry
Lecturer: Gaye Blake-Roberts
Gaye Blake-Roberts’ presentation at the TCC 2019 Annual Meeting in Birmingham, AL explores the development of the transfer printing process for pottery in Great Britain and it’s dramatic effect on the industry. Gaye, now retired, was Curator at the Wedgwood Museum in Barlaston, England, is currently an honorary senior research fellow with the V&A Research Institute, and was recently awarded the M.B.E. This lecture was made possible by the generous support of the Paul and Gladys Richards Research Grant Program for Studies in British Transferware.
Transferware Worldwide Lecture Series
Title: Two Worlds in One Shipwreck
Lecturer: Wytze Stellingwerf, Archaeologist and Specialist of Late and Post-Medieval Material Culture, Archeologie West-Friesland.
Description: This lecture discusses the extensive archival research undertaken of the shipwreck of the Pieter Anthony in Dutch Wadden Sea, loaded with early 19th-century luxury items and tools related to slavery. The Pieter Anthony, which departed from Amsterdam in November 1822, sunk only a month later during a storm in the Wadden Sea near the isle of Texel. In his lecture, Wytze shall focus on the spectacular amount of transferware that was retrieved from the wreck.
Our speaker: Wytze Stellingwerf (1992, MA) graduated at Leiden University in 2017 for the Masters in Historical Archaeology and currently works as an archaeologist and ceramics specialist of the late- and post-Medieval period in the town of Hoorn in the northern part of the Netherlands.
Title: A Trip to Edinburgh: Transfer-Printed Ceramics in the Collection of National Museums Scotland
Lecturer: Claire Blakey, Curator of Modern Decorative Arts, National Museums Scotland
Description: This lecture explores the collections of British transfer-printed ceramics in the collection of National Museums Scotland which include wares made for export across the globe, as well as pieces which can be used to illustrate the technical processes of transfer printing on pottery.
Our speaker: Claire Blakey is Curator of Modern Decorative Arts at National Museums Scotland in Edinburgh. She has worked in museums across the UK, curating numerous exhibitions and publishing on topics including majolica, maiolica, the trade in Staffordshire pottery and East Asian ceramics.
Title: British transferware for the Dutch Market, c. 1775-1850
Lecturer: Wytze Stellingwerf, Archaeologist and Specialist of Late and Post-Medieval Material Culture, Archeologie West-Friesland.
Description: Wytze’s lecture explored British ceramics for the Dutch market. As part of this, he also discussed the wreck of the Pieter Anthony which perished in 1822 on the way to Surinam.
Our speaker: In 2017 Wytze Stellingwerf (1992, MA) graduated at the faculty of Archaeology at Leiden University with a study of late 18th-century politically charged ceramics and glassware in the Netherlands. This resulted in the publication of a book, called “The Patriot Behind the Pot: A Historical and Archaeological Study of Ceramics, Glassware and Politics in the Dutch Household of the Revolutionary Era.” He currently works as an archaeologist and ceramics specialist of the late- and post-Medieval period in the town of Hoorn in the northern part of the Netherlands. In addition, he regularly works at Museum Kaap Skil on the Dutch isle of Texel, where he documents finds from shipwrecks done by sport divers in the Wadden Sea and North Sea. Wytze has a great interest in the rise of the Industrial Revolution and its material and sociocultural impact in Western Europe and America, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. Furthermore, the maritime and colonial past of the Netherlands are among his greatest interests. During his internship at the depot of the Dutch National Institute of Shipwreck Archaeology in Lelystad in 2013, Wytze came into contact with 18th- and 19th-century British transferware retrieved from various shipwrecks. This led to a never-ending fascination for the beauty and fine quality of 18th- and 19th-century British earthenware which is still abundantly available at flea markets, thrift stores and auction houses in the Netherlands. He has been collecting British pottery ever since.
Title: Staffordshire Hospitality: An Exploration of Staffordshire Transferware Made for and Used by the Hospitality Trade
Lecturer: Ben Miller, Assistant Curator of Ceramics, The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent, England
Description: Ben’s lecture explored the 300-year history of North Staffordshire ceramics created for the hospitality industry: Ceramics that have helped to quench the thirst and fill the bellies of inn and tavern patrons, cleanse hotel guests, supply banqueting halls, and cater for travellers on land, sea, and in the air.
Our Speaker: Ben Miller has worked with ceramics collections since 2012 starting his career at The Wedgwood Museum before moving on to The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery. He completed his BA at Keele University between 2006 and 2009 and his MA at Birmingham University’s Ironbridge Institute in 2010. From 2012 to 2015 he worked as a Museum Assistant at The Wedgwood Museum during which time was able to research a wide variety of topics across the Wedgwood collection and archive. In 2015 he joined the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery as Assistant Curator of Ceramics and has since worked on several exhibitions and given talks to a number of collectors’ groups. His passion lies in Staffordshire ceramics from the 18th century to the present with a particular interest in 19th and 20th century factory production, overseas trade, and design.
Lecturer: Jonathan Gray, Honorary Research Fellow at the Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales
Description: Jonathan’s lecture considers the range of ship prints used at the Swansea Pottery and provide a revised timescale for their introduction and development. Related prints - some found together with the ship prints - will also be discussed.
Our Speaker: Jonathan is an Honorary Research Fellow at the Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales, focusing on the ceramic output from South Wales 1764-1934. He is also the meetings secretary for the English Ceramic Circle. Jonathan has written extensively on Welsh Ceramics, and published The Cambrian Company, Swansea Pottery in London 1806-1808 in 2012. He is currently finalising a book on the Art Potter Horace Elliott who was active 1880-1934 and had wares made at Ewenny near Bridgend in South Wales. Jonathan is an active member of the TCC - he presented to the group at the 2011 Baltimore meeting on Swansea's Printed Wares - A Re-assessment. His lecture is available in article form on the TCC website, read the paper.
Lecturer: Robin Emmerson, Freelance Decorative Arts Curator, Shrewsbury, England
Description: The first printing on pottery was overglaze, and it was another three decades before pottery was printed underglaze. The study of overglaze printing presents a special intellectual challenge because an already glazed pot could have been printed hundreds of miles from where it was made, or in the same factory. The copper plate from which it was printed could also have been engraved somewhere else. Most printed pots do not have the signature of the engraver or printer in the print, but fortunately a few do, and these, together with documentary and archaeological evidence, enable us to trace the spread of the pottery printer’s skill from John Brooks and Henry Delamain at Battersea to Liverpool, Derby, Staffordshire and Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Our Speaker: Our speaker: Robin Emmerson was Curator of the Decorative Art Department at National Museums Liverpool. Since retirement he was for six years Chair of the Northern Ceramics Society. He was one of the contributors to the TCC and NCS joint online exhibition on British Printed Pottery and Porcelain and wrote the essay on ‘Pottery and the Liverpool Trade’ in S. Robert Teitelman et al., Success to America: Creamware for the American Market (Antique Collectors’ Club, 2010).
Title: Supplying the Present Wants of Our Yankee Cousins
Lecturer: Dr. Neil Ewins, Senior Lecturer in Design History, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, England.
Description: In 1997, the Potteries Museum and Art Gallery of Hanley published my Supplying the Present Wants of Our Yankee Cousins: Staffordshire Ceramics and the American market 1775-1880. This lecture focuses on some of the themes covered by this publication which, it is hoped, will be of interest to British ceramic enthusiasts. My fascination with this subject has never diminished and my talk will also include more recent work on this theme. The process of learning continues, as does the research.
Our Speaker: Dr. Neil Ewins is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Sunderland teaching Design History and Theory courses for BA and MA students studying design, ceramics and glass. He has worked at Sunderland for almost 20 years and is a Senior Fellow of The Higher Education Academy. He also acts as a PhD supervisor. Neil is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and sits on Editorial Board of the Journal of Business and Economic Development. His most recent book, Ceramics and Globalization: Staffordshire Ceramics, Made in China, was published by Bloomsbury Academic in 2017. He is currently working on a chapter concerning 19th century ceramics and glass for a six-volume publication entitled A Cultural History of Craft, also to be published by Bloomsbury. Neil is a proud member of the Transferware Collectors Club, and the American Ceramic Circle.
Title: From Rehe, China to Staffordshire, England; The Voyage of a Chinese Image
Lecturer: Ron Fuchs, Senior Curator, Reeves Museum of Ceramics, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA
Description: The “India Temple” pattern made by John and William Ridgway of Staffordshire depicts a temple at the Chinese imperial summer palace, Bishu Shanzhuang, or the Mountain Estate for Escaping the Heat. Reflecting the globalized world of the eighteenth century, the design is based on an illustration in The Emperor of China’s Palace at Pekin, published in London in 1753. It copied an engraving done in 1714 by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ripa, who introduced Western-style copper-plate printing to China. It was based on a woodblock print by the Chinese engravers Zhu Gui and Mei Yufeng, who copied a preparatory drawing or painting done by the court painter Shen Yu around 1712.
Speaker bio: Ron Fuchs is the Senior Curator of the Reeves Museum of Ceramics at Washington and Lee University, where he has worked for the last 13 years.He is a graduate of the College of William and Mary and the Winterthur Program in Early American Material Culture at the University of Delaware. He worked at Winterthur for ten years prior to moving to the Reeves. He is past president and chair of the American Ceramic Circle, and a member of the TCC.
Transferware at the End of the World: Archaeology of a 19th Century Shipping Cargo in the Cape Horn Route
Lecturer: Dolores Elkin. Dr. Elkin is an archaeologist with Argentina´s National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) based at the National Institute of Anthropology.
Description: Between 2016 and 2017 an archaeological rescue project was implemented after the accidental discovery on the coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina of what looked like a historic ship´s cargo. The assemblage was formed by a group of crates mainly containing 19th century English ceramics. Among the crates were transfer decorated pieces which allowed the first chronological and cultural assessment of the site. This lecture will provide a detailed illustration of the transferware items found and reveal various research strands related to the commercial exportation of British goods along the Cape Horn route.
Speaker Bio: Dolores Elkin graduated with a Doctoral degree from the University of Buenos Aires in 1996. That same year, she created the first Underwater Archaeology Program in Argentina. The goal was to initiate research of underwater archaeological sites as well as to create public awareness of their significant cultural heritage.
A professor at both the University of Buenos Aires and the National University of the Central Province of Buenos Aires, Dr. Elkin has lectured on both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. As an experienced diver, she engages with the sport and professional diving community and fosters joint efforts to preserve Argentina’s submerged cultural heritage.
Dr. Elkin has led several nationally and internationally funded projects involving shipwrecks from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries located in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Her work has resulted in an extensive publication record intended for both the academic community and the public at large. As an elected member and former president of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Body to the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, she has also organized and participated in numerous national and international scientific events.
Lecturer: Pat Halfpenny, Curator Emerita, Ceramics & Glass, Winterthur Museum
This lecture is co-sponsored by the Northern Ceramic Society
Description: After a brief glimpse of underglaze blue printing at the opening of this presentation, Pat goes on to introduce other late 18th century underglaze colour printing options including bi-colour printing which was undertaken on a small scale in the 1790s. The major focus of the talk is on the new colours and processes introduced from the 1820s, and which became a standard part of production by the 1830s. The story concludes with the introduction of multi-colour printing from 1835 and its widespread use after the Great Exhibition of 1851.
Speaker Bio: Pat Halfpenny specializes in the study of 18th & 19th century Staffordshire earthenwares. She began her career in 1967 at the City Museum & Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent, England, where she was Keeper of Ceramics from 1980-1995. From 1995-2009 she served as Curator of Ceramics & Glass, then Director of Museum Collections Winterthur Museum, Delaware, USA. In 2013 she was made Curator Emerita, Ceramics & Glass, for Winterthur Museum in recognition of her contributions.
Pat is currently on the Board of The Friends of Blue and is Chair of the Northern Ceramic Society. As an independent ceramic researcher, she continues to curate, write, lecture, and contribute to websites about ceramics.
Lecturer: Corey Heyward Sattes, Wexler Curatorial Fellow, Archaeology, Drayton Hall Preservation Trust
Description: The South Flanker well site at Drayton Hall, an 18th-century plantation estate north of Charleston, South Carolina, provides a unique opportunity to examine the intentional refuse of those living on the property. Additionally, the contained nature of this context allows for us to observe relatively clear phases of trash deposits, each associated with different generations owning the house. The recovered transferware from this assemblage, and the research acquired in the Transferware Collectors Club database, has been invaluable for dating these contexts. This talk will examine the range of the recovered transferware ceramics, methods of analysis, and interpretations of their role in market accessibility and household use.
Speaker bio: Corey A. H. Sattes received her B.A. in both Archaeology and Art History from the College of Charleston, and her M.A. in Anthropology from George Washington University. Sattes currently works as an archaeologist and the Wexler Curatorial Fellow at Drayton Hall Preservation Trust, where she curates and catalogs the legacy archaeological collection at Drayton Hall using the Digital Archaeological Archive of Comparative Slavery (DAACS). She researches the material culture of Native Americans, enslaved Africans, and African Americans in the southeastern United States during and following the colonial period. She focuses primarily on ceramics manufactured and used by Native Americans and African descendants, namely colonoware. Sattes also specializes in artifact photography and digitization.
Transferware in the Valley: Evidence of English Transferware in New England's Connecticut River Valley, 1820-1850
Lecturer: Daniel Sousa, Assistant Curator at Historic Deerfield
Description: In the early decades of the 19th century, Connecticut River Valley merchants and store owners acquired numerous amounts of English transferware to sell to local consumers. What transferware patterns were available in the Connecticut River Valley, and how did they get there? To answer these questions, this presentation will examine the life and career of Hartford, Connecticut ceramic importer Peter Morton (1800-1846), and extant examples of his wares, along with pieces of transferware found archaeologically throughout the Connecticut River Valley.
Speaker Bio: Daniel Sousa became the Assistant Curator at Historic Deerfield in 2019. Prior to joining the museum staff in 2017 as the Decorative Arts Trust Curatorial Intern, he worked at the New England Historic Genealogical Society, and at Skinner Auctioneers. He has also served as an intern with the Boston Furniture Archive, a project of the Winterthur Museum, and has participated in the 2019 Winterthur Institute program. He holds a B.A. in history from Providence College, an M.A. in history from the University of Massachusetts, Boston, and a Certificate in Genealogical Research from Boston University.
Lecturer: Leslie Lambour Bouterie, Visiting Curator of Ceramics at James Madison’s Montpelier and Visiting Scholar for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
About the lecture:
Description: The interpretation of a historic property relies on a highly collaborative team of “history detectives” to bring both the site and the personal stories of its residents to life. Archaeologists, curators, historians, preservationists, and educators tirelessly mine every clue to ensure historical accuracy. In this presentation, we will view the fruits of this collaboration during an armchair tour of Montpelier, with a focus on the impressive collection of ceramics which includes a wide variety of wares and many British transfer-printed patterns.
Montpelier, a property of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, is located in central Virginia. It was home to James Madison, fourth president of the United States and his devoted wife Dolley, and also to a large enslaved community. The presidential home which has been meticulously restored and furnished, and the slave dwellings and outbuildings which have been carefully reconstructed and sensitively appointed after comprehensive research, skillfully illuminate the lives of those who lived and worked on the plantation.
Speaker Bio: Leslie Lambour Bouterie serves as the Visiting Curator of Ceramics at James Madison’s Montpelier and as a Visiting Scholar for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. A career educator and ceramic specialist, she provides consultation services to museums and historic sites; lectures, writes and enthusiastically shares her passion for British ceramics.
Lecturer: Angelika R. Kuettner, Associate Curator of Ceramics and Glass at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
About the lecture: A recent addition to the collection of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation provided the inspiration for this presentation about the prolific British potter, Enoch Wood. The charming child’s mug, transfer-printed in black, features an image of Wood and his son riding their horses, accompanied by their canine pet. Together, they view the family’s Burslem factory, humming with activity with smoke billowing from the bottle ovens, a testament to its success. This lecture discusses the production of this prolific maker who supplied many American consumers, and features several transfer-printed wares used by Williamsburg residents in the early 1800’s.
About the speaker: Angelika became associate curator of ceramics and glass at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (CWF) in 2019. She came to CWF in 2006 as a graduate student intern for the ceramics and glass department and joined the Foundation as an associate registrar in 2007. She was promoted to associate registrar for imaging and assistant curator of ceramics in 2011 and associate curator of ceramics in 2016. Prior to graduate school at William and Mary she worked for approximately three years as the curatorial assistant at the Reeves Center at Washington and Lee University. She is a proud fellow of the 2010 Attingham Trust Summer School and of the 2016 MESDA Summer Institute. Angelika was coeditor of the 2017 issue of Ceramics in America; she has published and spoken on many topics including the ceramic-manufacturing partnership of Benjamin Leigh and John Allman in 18th-century Boston, mended ceramics in colonial America, and silver lusterware in early 19th century America.
Floral Prints as Sources for Patterns on Porcelain and Transferware; the Botanical and Gardening Obsession
Lecturer: Patricia (Pat) Knight
In her talk she discusses the role of botany in the 18th century, the research at botanical centers and the popular interest in horticulture that led to books illustrated with botanical prints by Georg Ehret and to the Botanical Magazine published by William Curtis. As a result there was a profusion of botanical decoration on porcelain in the late 18th century. The second half of the lecture concentrated on the botanical and floral prints of the 19th century that were seen on transferware pottery inspired by various garden magazines and books on horticulture.
About the speaker: Patricia Darrell Knight was born in England, studied English and European history at Southampton University and emigrated to the USA with her husband in 1960. Always a keen gardener she gained a landscape certificate in Boston. In 1984 she founded Patrician Antiques in Los Altos specializing in 18th and 19th century porcelain, pottery, and silver. She continues to operate her business on the web. She is a long time member of the Transferware Collectors Club and the San Francisco Ceramic Circle. Her ceramic collecting interests include Staffordshire figures and wares, Regency period porcelains, Jugendstil and modern ceramics. As an enthusiastic gardener she has served on the Boards of the Western Horticulture Society and the Los Altos Garden club.
Lecturer: Jeffrey Ruda
In 1867-68, French artist Félix Bracquemond etched the transfer prints for Europe’s first table service in a new Japonesque style. The service was a huge critical and commercial success, and was quickly embraced by potters in Staffordshire. The design breakthrough has always been recognized, but not the choice and effect of etched transfer prints instead of engravings. The talk discusses the scope, look, and meaning of this unconventional medium when etching itself was an art-world fashion.
Jeffrey Ruda is Professor Emeritus of Art History at the University of California, Davis, where he headed the Art History faculty for twelve years. His publications include Fra Filippo Lippi: Life and Work, London & New York, 1993; and The Art of Drawing: Old Masters from the Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, Flint (MI), 1992, as well as journal articles. He has been a ceramics fan and collector since grad school, and he was president of the San Francisco Ceramic Circle from 2013 to 2019. An active member of the TCC, he is also a contributor to the TCC Database of Patterns and Sources.
Lecturer: Jaap Otte
Enjoy this first Transferware Worldwide Series lecture by TCC Member Jaap Otte. In this lecture, Jaap Otte discusses the organization of the trade of European ceramics to the Dutch East Indies during the period 1820 to 1940, as well as the efforts to cater to preferences of the local population.